Title: King

Alternate names/spellings: Richard Coeur de Lion, Richard the Lionheart

Dates: 1157 - 1199 () 

Richard I of England (Richard Coeur de Lion, Richard the Lionheart) (8 September 1157 – 6 April 1199) was King of England from 6 July 1189 until his death. He was a central Christian commander during the Third Crusade, effectively leading the campaign after the departure of Philip II of France and scoring considerable victories against Saladin, but was unable to reconquer Jerusalem. While returning home from the Holy Land in 1192, Richard was captured near Vienna by Leopold V, Duke of Austria. While in prison, Richard wrote Ja nus hons pris ("No man who is imprisoned"), to express his feelings of abandonment by his people and his sister, Marie de Champagne.